Definition of Logical Reasoning
Logical reasoning is that which is detached from the relations between objects and which arises from the very elaboration of the individual. It appears through the coordination of previously created relationships between objects.
It must be taken into account that differences and similarities between objects exist only in the head of the person who manages to create them. That said, logical perception cannot be taught in a direct way. On the other hand, it develops as the individual interacts with his environment.
It is worth mentioning that logic is the science that exposes the laws, means, and forms of scientific knowledge. As far as etymology is concerned, the concept of logic derives from the Latin logĭca, which in turn is borrowed from the Greek word logikós (of logos, “reason” or “study”).
It is a formal science devoid of content, as it is dedicated to the study of valid forms of inference. As such, it is logical to study the methods and principles used to distinguish the correct reasoning from the incorrect.
In this sense, logical reasoning is used to analyze, argue, reason, justify or verify all forms of reasoning. It is intended to be precise and accurate while being based on probable data or facts. Logical reasoning is analytical (because it divides reasoning into parts) and rational, respects rules and is sequential (linear, while unfolding little by little).
The Basics of Logic Reasoning
In Christian life, it behooves us to excel in our way of thinking. A healthy way of reasoning helps to remove obstacles to faith in Jesus Christ. But even more, combined with an endearing personality, she illustrates Christian wisdom. In-depth reflection does honor and glory to our Creator and Lord.
“Do not be molded by the present world, but allow yourself to be transformed by the renewal of your thought, to be able to discern the will of God: what is good, what pleases, what is perfect.” — Romans
Using the principles of logic makes our arguments rational and convincing. But what is logic? There are several ways to define it, according to the authors:
- Logic studies the methods we use to analyze information and draw valid conclusions.
- Logic is a way of thinking that leads to correct conclusions by understanding the implications and mistakes that people often make when thinking about it.
- Logic is the science of the necessary conclusion.
- One adds: “logic: the best thing after holiness for a Christian”!
The study of logic includes several elements. At its simplest level, the logic consists of considering propositions, arguments, assumptions, and conclusions. We focus on the (good) way of thinking that leads to the correct conclusions.
Logic also includes the study of reasoning errors. By operations of deduction and induction (mental operation of generalizing a reasoning or observation from singular cases), one draws correct conclusions.
Finally, logic is about how we use our language. A logical thinker seeks to be precise and clear in what he communicates. He tries to remain cautious, methodical and systematic.
The logic is built on 4 infallible laws :
- the law of non-contradiction (A is not non-A)
- the law of identity (A is A)
- the law of the excluded third (either A or non-A)
- the law of rational inference (logical deduction)
These infallible laws are the foundation of all logical reasoning. Where do they come from? Of God. We Christians recognize that God is the basis of logic because all truth is in Him.
The basic elements of Logical Reasoning
I wanted to point out again that we will only scratch the surface of this area, which can quickly become complex. Do not hesitate to tell us if this subject seems useful to you and if we are pedagogues.
All logical reasoning is based on these elements. The first basic element is the proposition. A proposition is something that can be confirmed … or reversed, true or false. We can, therefore, characterize it by a “value of truth”: it expresses (or not) a characteristic of reality. Other types of statements, such as orders, questions, and exclamations are not necessarily true or false; they are not propositions.
A reasoning is a series of propositions; one of them (the conclusion) being presented as logically arising from the others (the premises). The latter give him support or the foundations on which it is based. In other words, when several propositions lead to a result, we are dealing with a reasoning. A conclusion without premises, not a reasoning. This is just an opinion.
The basic elements of a reasoning can often be identified by particular expressions:
- “Therefore, therefore, where, if, as a consequence, it follows that, we can conclude, which shows that …” are words that usually introduce a conclusion.
- “Since, because, because, as it follows from, as shown, as indicated by, the reason is that …” are those who introduce a premise.
Be careful, do not confuse a reasoning with an explanation: examine the context and the intention of the author to discriminate them.
Two types of reasoning coexist: the inductive and the deductive. It is important to differentiate them well.
- A reasoning is said to be deductive when the conclusion necessarily follows from the premises and certainly.
- With inductive reasoning , on the other hand, we can not be so assertive. The conclusion is declared true only with a certain degree of probability.
One can also see things in the following way: in the case of deductive reasoning, no additional information is able to change the conclusion. In the case of inductive reasoning, however, the conclusion may change if new information is provided. Deductive reasoning is certain; the inductive are only probable, with a certain degree of confidence.
When a reasoning is structured correctly, it is valid . In the case of a valid deductive reasoning, if all the premises are true, the conclusion is necessarily too. This is a solid reasoning on which we will be able to rely.